One of our key activities is modeling Earth systems and processes
to better understand and predict their behavior. Models are complex
mathematical descriptions of real-world phenomena that we run
on computers and compare against real-world observations. Models
enable us to continually refine our understanding of Earth systems
and predict weather and climate.
|| Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics
an optimally constrained, weighted least-squares fit of electric potential distribution to diverse types of atmospheric observations. Knowledge of these distributions is important in many areas of magnetospheric, ionospheric, and thermospheric physics.
|| Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System
an experimental, real-time numerical weather prediction capability that provides support for the United States Antarctic Program, Antarctic science, and international Antarctic efforts. AMPS produces numerical guidance from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with twice-daily forecasts covering Antarctica.
|| Biome-Biogeochemical Cycles
a computer program that estimates fluxes and storage of energy, water, carbon, and nitrogen for the vegetation and soil components of terrestrial ecosystems
|| Community Atmosphere Model (formerly CCM3)
the atmospheric component of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM). It can also be used as a stand-alone model
|| Coupled Atmosphere–Wildland Fire–Environment Model
an atmospheric model, similar to ones used for weather forecasting, coupled to a wildfire model to represent heat and moisture from the fire which, when released into the atmosphere, create strong winds, which then affect the spread of the fire
|| Community Climate System Model
a fully coupled model, including atmosphere, ocean, land surface, and sea ice components, providing state-of-the-art simulations of the Earth's past, present, and future climate
|| Common Land Model
the land model within the Community Climate System Model and the Community Atmosphere Model. The CLM's components are biogeophysics, hydrologic cycle, biogeochemistry, and dynamic vegetation.
|| Changing Relief and Evolving Ecosystem Project
a theoretical, process-response model that links ecosystem dynamics with geomorphology at the landscape scale. The model simulates edaphic controls on ecosystem dynamics by simulating the downslope movement of soil and nutrients while monitoring the effect of that movement on soil carbon accumulation.
|| Column Radiation Model
a stand-alone version of the radiation subroutines used in the Community Climate System Model. CRM is used for scientific studies of the Earth's solar and infrared energy budgets, greenhouse gas and aerosol radiative forcing, and column closure experiments.
|| Community Sea Ice Model
the sea ice component of the Community Climate System Model. It includes an elastic-viscous-plastic dynamics scheme, an ice thickness distribution, energy-conserving thermodynamics, a slab ocean mixed-layer model, and the ability to run using prescribed ice concentrations.
|| Climate System Model
predecessor to the CCSM, based on a framework that divides the complete climate system into component models connected by a coupler. Individual component models, atmosphere, land, ocean, and sea-ice, can be exchanged for alternate models, thus allowing different configurations appropriate for different applications.
|| Dynamic Global Vegetation Model
ecological concepts from a European terrestrial biosphere model have been incorporated into the NCAR Land Surface Model to simulate plant growth in the Community Climate System Model.
|| Earth System Modeling Framework
a flexible software infrastructure built collaboratively to improve the interoperability and performance of Earth-system science modeling efforts. Components are being developed by NCAR (CAM and WRF), NASA, NOAA, the U.S. Departments of Defense and Energy, and collaborating universities.
|| Global-Scale Wave Model
a numerical model of planetary waves and solar tides in the Earth's atmosphere. GSWM solves the linearized and extended Navier-Stokes equations for steady-state global temperature and wind perturbations. GSWM may be used to calculate either an "unforced" planetary wave response for a specified period and zonal wave number or a thermally driven response for a diurnal or semidiurnal atmospheric tide.
|| Regional Episodic Chemical Transport Model
this model has merged with the Weather Research and Forecasting Chemistry project (WRF-Chem), which provides the capability to simulate chemistry and aerosols, from cloud scales to regional scales.
|| Land Surface Model
examines biogeophysical and biogeochemical land-atmosphere interactions, especially the effects of land surfaces on climate and atmospheric chemistry. It can be run coupled to an atmospheric model or in a stand-alone mode, if an atmospheric forcing is provided. The spatial grid can range from one point to global.
|| Model for the Assessment of Greenhouse-gas Induced Climate Change
MAGICC and SCENGEN are coupled, user-friendly interactive software suites that allow users to investigate future climate change and its uncertainties at both the global-mean and regional levels. MAGICC carries through calculations at the global-mean level using the same upwelling-diffusion climate model employed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
|| Model of the Exchange of Gases between the Atmosphere and Nature
a global model for estimating the net emission of gases and aerosols from terrestrial ecosystems into the atmosphere. It is driven by land cover, weather, and atmospheric chemical composition. It can run as a stand-alone model for generating emission inventories, but it is also being incorporated as a component of chemistry/transport and earth system models.
|| Pennsylvania State University/NCAR Mesoscale Model, version 5
a limited-area, nonhydrostatic, terrain-following sigma-coordinate model designed to simulate or predict mesoscale atmospheric circulation. The model is supported by several pre- and post-processing programs, which are referred to collectively as the MM5 modeling system.
|| Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers
a comprehensive global chemical transport model of atmospheric composition designed to simulate tropospheric chemical and transport processes. It can be driven by standard meteorogical fields from meteorological centers or by fields generated from general circulation models. MOZART2 is the tropospheric version; MOZART3 extends into the stratosphere and mesosphere.
|| NCAR CSM Ocean Model
a full-depth, z-coordinate ocean model that was prepared as the ocean component of the first version of the NCAR Climate System Model (the predecessor of the CCSM).
|| NCAR CSM Pacific Basin Model
can be run as the global ocean component of the Climate System Model (the predecessor of the CCSM) or as a stand-alone model.
|| Parallel Climate Model
The NCAR Community Climate Model version 3, the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Parallel Ocean Program, and a sea ice model from the Naval Postgraduate School are coupled together in a massively parallel computer environment.
|| Parallel Ocean Program
NCAR's version of the POP model, which was originally developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, is the ocean component of the CCSM.
|| Paleoclimate System Model
a version of the Climate System Model (CSM), the predecessor of the CCSM. It has been used to study climate during, e.g., the Mid-Cretaceous, Early Eocene, and mid-Holocene eras; the last glacial maximum; and the 17th through 20th centuries.
|| Single-column Community Climate Model
an unsupported contribution to the university modeling community, SSCM is a one-dimensional, time-dependent version of the NCAR Community Climate Model. Despite certain limitations, it has proven to be an economical environment for investigating and improving parameterizations of radiative and moist processes in atmospheric general circulation models.
|| Regional Climate Scenario Generator
SCENGEN and MAGICC are coupled, user-friendly interactive software suites that allow users to investigate future climate change and its uncertainties at both the global-mean and regional level. SCENGEN uses these results, together with results from a set of coupled atmosphere/ocean general circulation models and a detailed baseline climatology, to produce spatially detailed information regarding future changes in temperature and precipitation, changes in their variability, and a range of other statistics.
|| Solar Cycle Prediction Model
a calibrated flux transport dynamo model of the solar convection zone in which differential rotation, meridional circulation, and large-scale poloidal field source are derived from observations.
|| Simulation of Chemistry, Radiation, and Transport of Environmentally Important Species
an interactive, chemical dynamical 2-D model of the middle atmosphere.
|| Thermosphere Ionosphere Electrodynamic General Circulation Model (TGCM)
one of NCAR's two 3-D time-dependent models (with TIME-GCM) of the Earth's neutral upper atmosphere. The models use a finite differencing technique to obtain a self-consistent solution for the coupled, nonlinear equations of hydrodynamics, thermodynamics, and continuity of the neutral gas and for the coupling between dynamics and atmospheric composition.
|| Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Electrodynamic General Circulation Model
one of NCAR's two 3-D time-dependent models (with TIEGCM) of the Earth's neutral upper atmosphere. The models use a finite differencing technique to obtain a self-consistent solution for the coupled, nonlinear equations of hydrodynamics, thermodynamics, and continuity of the neutral gas and for the coupling between dynamics and atmospheric composition.
|| Thermosphere-Ionosphere Nested Grid Model
a time-dependent, 3-D, high resolution model of the coupled neutral and ionized components of the upper atmosphere and is an extention of NCAR-TIGCM. The model was developed to study both large- and medium-scale processes occuring in the thermosphere-ionosphere system, as well as interactions between these processes. It calculates global as well as local neutral and plasma wind, temperature, and composition fields.
|| Tropospheric Ultraviolet and Visible Radiation Model
an interactive model for calculating solar visible and ultraviolet radiation in the troposphere. The model produces spectral irradiances and actinic fluxes, biologically weighted radiation, and photodissociation rate coefficients for user-specified location, date, time, surface reflectivity and elevation, ozone column, cloud thickness, and aerosols.
|VEMAP Data Portal
|| The Vegetation Ecosystem Modeling and Analysis Project provides a central collection of geographic, vegetation, soil, and site files files.
|| Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model
a comprehensive atmospheric model spanning the range of altitude from the Earth's surface to the thermosphere. The Community Atmosphere Model has been extended upward to 140 km by several adaptations and by incorporating molecular diffusion and diffusive separation effects from TIME-GCM and the chemical scheme from MOZART-3. Further addition of upper thermospheric physics and chemistry will eventually extend the model upward to about 500 km.
|| Weather Research and Forecasting Model
a mesocale numerical weather prediction system designed to serve both operational forecasting and atmospheric research needs. It features multiple dynamical cores, a 3-D variational (3DVAR) data assimilation system, and a software architecture allowing for computational parallelism and system extensibility. WRF is suitable for a broad spectrum of applications across scales ranging from meters to thousands of kilometers. WRF-Chem couples WRF with regional chemical transport, giving the capability to simulate chemistry and aerosols from cloud scale to regional scale. WRF-ARW is NCAR's advanced research version of the model.
|| Advanced Research WRF
NCAR's advanced research version of WRF. The Weather Research and Forecasting Model is a mesocale numerical weather prediction system designed to serve both operational forecasting and atmospheric research needs. It features multiple dynamical cores, a 3-D variational (3DVAR) data assimilation system, and a software architecture allowing for computational parallelism and system extensibility. WRF-ARW is suitable for a broad spectrum of applications across scales ranging from meters to thousands of kilometers.
|| Coupling the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) provides the capability to simulate chemistry and aerosols from cloud scales to regional scales. WRF-Chem has been developed by NOAA with contributions from NCAR, PNNL, EPA, and university scientists.